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دکتر بهروز امامی

دکتر بهروز امامی

در زمینه بیماری های دستگاه تنفسی و ریوی از جمله آسم، سرطان ریه، مشکلات تنفسی، آمبولی ریه، پنومونی و سایر بیماری هایی که مرتبط با بیماری های تنفسی هستند.

طبقه بندی بین المللی سردردها

فهرست مطالب

بر اساس نسخه سوم طبقه بندی بین المللی سردردها، سردردها به صورت زیر طبقه بندی می‌شوند:

 

سردردهای اولیه ( The primary headaches ) :

1. میگرن ( Migraine )

  • 1.1 میگرن بدون اورا (Migraine without aura)
  • 1.2 میگرن همراه با اورا (Migraine with aura)
    • 1.2.1 میگرن با اورای معولی (Migraine with typical aura)
    • 1.2.2 میگرن با اورای ساقه مغز (Migraine with brainstem aura)
    • 1.2.3 میگرن همی پلاژیک (Hemiplegic migraine)
      • 1.2.3.1 میگرن همی پلاژیک ارثی (Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM))
        • 1.2.3.1.1 میگرن همی پلاژیک ارثی نوع 1 ( (Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1))
        • 1.2.3.1.2 میگرن همی پلاژیک ارثی نوع 2 (Familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2))
        • 1.2.3.1.3 میگرن همی پلاژیک ارثی نوع 3 (Familial hemiplegic migraine type 3 (FHM3))
        • 1.2.3.1.4 میگرن همی پلاژیک ارثی نوع 4 (Familial hemiplegic migraine, other loci)
      • 1.2.3.2 میگرن همی پلاژیک غیر ارثی (Sporadic hemiplegic migraine (SHM))
    • 1.2.4 میگرن جشمی (Retinal migraine)
  • 1.3 میگرن مزمن (Chronic migraine)
  • 1.4 عوارض میگرن (Complications of migraine)
    • 1.4.1 میگرن طولانی یا پیوسته (Status migrainosus)
    • 1.4.2 اورای پایدار بدون سکته (Persistent aura without infarction)
    • 1.4.3 سکته مغزی ناشی از میگرن (Migrainous infarction)
    • 1.4.4 تشنج ناشی از میگرن (Migraine aura-triggered seizure)
  • 1.5 میگرن احتمالی یا شبه میگرن (Probable migraine)
    • 1.5.1 میگرن احتمالی بدون اورا (Probable migraine without aura)
    • 1.5.2 میگرن احتمالی همراه با اورا (Probable migraine with aura)
  • 1.6 سندرم های اپیزودیک که ممکن است با میگرن همراه باشند (Episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine)
    • 1.6.1 اختلال مکرر دستگاه گوارش (Recurrent gastrointestinal disturbance)
      • 1.6.1.1 سندرم استفراغ چرخشی یا چرخه‎ای (Cyclical vomiting syndrome)
      • 1.6.1.2 میگرن شکمی (Abdominal migraine)
    • 1.6.2 سرگیجه حمله‌ای خوش‌خیم (Benign paroxysmal vertigo)
    • 1.6.3 Benign paroxysmal torticollis

 

 

2. سردردهای تنشی  (Tension-type headache (TTH))

  • 2.1 Infrequent episodic tension-type headache
    • 2.1.1 Infrequent episodic tension-type headache associated with pericranial tenderness
    • 2.1.2 Infrequent episodic tension-type headache not associated with pericranial tenderness
  • 2.2 Frequent episodic tension-type headache
    • 2.2.1 Frequent episodic tension-type headache associated with pericranial tenderness
    • 2.2.2 Frequent episodic tension-type headache not associated with pericranial tenderness
  • 2.3 Chronic tension-type headache
    • 2.3.1 Chronic tension-type headache associated with pericranial tenderness
    • 2.3.2 Chronic tension-type headache not associated with pericranial tenderness
  • 2.4 Probable tension-type headache
    • 2.4.1 Probable infrequent episodic tension-type headache
    • 2.4.2 Probable frequent episodic tension-type headache
    • 2.4.3 Probable chronic tension-type headache

 

 

3. Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs)

  • 3.1 Cluster headache
    • 3.1.1 Episodic cluster headache
    • 3.1.2 Chronic cluster headache
  • 3.2 Paroxysmal hemicrania
    • 3.2.1 Episodic paroxysmal hemicrania
    • 3.2.2 Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania
  • 3.3 Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks
    • 3.3.1 Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT)
      • 3.3.1.1 Episodic SUNCT
      • 3.3.1.2 Chronic SUNCT
    • 3.3.2 Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with cranial autonomic symptoms (SUNA)
      • 3.3.2.1 Episodic SUNA
      • 3.3.2.2 Chronic SUNA
  • 3.4 Hemicrania continua
    • 3.4.1 Hemicrania continua, remitting subtype
    • 3.4.2 Hemicrania continua, unremitting subtype
  • 3.5 Probable trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia
    • 3.5.1 Probable cluster headache
    • 3.5.2 Probable paroxysmal hemicrania
    • 3.5.3 Probable short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks
    • 3.5.4 Probable hemicrania continua

 

 

4. سایر سردردهای اولیه Other primary headache disorders

  • 4.1 Primary cough headache
    • 4.1.1 Probable primary cough headache
  • 4.2 Primary exercise headache
    • 4.2.1 Probable primary exercise headache
  • 4.3 Primary headache associated with sexual activity
    • 4.3.1 Probable primary headache associated with sexual activity
  • 4.4 Primary thunderclap headache
  • 4.5 Cold-stimulus headache
    • 4.5.1 Headache attributed to external application of a cold stimulus
    • 4.5.2 Headache attributed to ingestion or inhalation of a cold stimulus
    • 4.5.3 Probable cold-stimulus headache
      • 4.5.3.1 Headache probably attributed to external application of a cold stimulus
      • 4.5.3.2 Headache probably attributed to ingestion or inhalation of a cold stimulus
  • 4.6 External-pressure headache
    • 4.6.1 External-compression headache
    • 4.6.2 External-traction headache
    • 4.6.3 Probable external-pressure headache
      • 4.6.3.1 Probable external-compression headache
      • 4.6.3.2 Probable external-traction headache
  • 4.7 Primary stabbing headache
    • 4.7.1 Probable primary stabbing headache
  • 4.8 Nummular headache
    • 4.8.1 Probable nummular headache
  • 4.9 Hypnic headache
    • 4.9.1 Probable hypnic headache
  • 4.10 New daily persistent headache (NDPH)
    • 4.10.1 Probable new daily persistent headache

 

 

سردردهای ثانویه (  secondary headaches ) :

5. سردردهای حاصل از ضربه و جراحت در سر و گردن  Headache attributed to trauma or injury to the head and/or neck

  • 5.1 Acute headache attributed to traumatic injury to the head
    • 5.1.1 Acute headache attributed to moderate or severe traumatic injury to the head
    • 5.1.2 Acute headache attributed to mild traumatic injury to the head
  • 5.2 Persistent headache attributed to traumatic injury to the head
    • 5.2.1 Persistent headache attributed to moderate or severe traumatic injury to the head
    • 5.2.2 Persistent headache attributed to mild traumatic injury to the head
  • 5.3 Acute headache attributed to whiplash1
  • 5.4 Persistent headache attributed to whiplash
  • 5.5 Acute headache attributed to craniotomy
  • 5.6 Persistent headache attributed to craniotomy

 

6. سردردهای حاصل از مشکلات عروق سر و گردن   Headache attributed to cranial or cervical vascular disorder

  • 6.1 Headache attributed to cerebral ischaemic event
    • 6.1.1 Headache attributed to ischaemic stroke (cerebral infarction)
      • 6.1.1.1 Acute headache attributed to ischaemic stroke (cerebral infarction)
      • 6.1.1.2 Persistent headache attributed to past ischaemic stroke (cerebral infarction)
    • 6.1.2 Headache attributed to transient ischaemic attack (TIA)
  • 6.2 Headache attributed to non-traumatic intracranial haemorrhage
    • 6.2.1 Headache attributed to non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage
    • 6.2.2 Acute headache attributed to non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH)
    • 6.2.3 Acute headache attributed to non-traumatic acute subdural haemorrhage (ASDH)
    • 6.2.4 Persistent headache attributed to past non-traumatic intracranial haemorrhage
      • 6.2.4.1 Persistent headache attributed to past non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage
      • 6.2.4.2 Persistent headache attributed to past non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage
      • 6.2.4.3 Persistent headache attributed to past non-traumatic acute subdural haemorrhage
  • 6.3 Headache attributed to unruptured vascular malformation
    • 6.3.1 Headache attributed to unruptured saccular aneurysm
    • 6.3.2 Headache attributed to arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
    • 6.3.3 Headache attributed to dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF)
    • 6.3.4 Headache attributed to cavernous angioma
    • 6.3.5 Headache attributed to encephalotrigeminal or leptomeningeal angiomatosis (Sturge Weber syndrome)
  • 6.4 Headache attributed to arteritis
    • 6.4.1 Headache attributed to giant cell arteritis (GCA)
    • 6.4.2 Headache attributed to primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS)
    • 6.4.3 Headache attributed to secondary angiitis of the central nervous system (SACNS)
  • 6.5 Headache attributed to cervical carotid or vertebral artery disorder
    • 6.5.1 Headache or facial or neck pain attributed to cervical carotid or vertebral artery dissection
      • 6.5.1.1 Acute headache or facial or neck pain attributed to cervical carotid or vertebral artery dissection
      • 6.5.1.2 Persistent headache or facial or neck pain attributed to past cervical carotid or vertebral artery dissection
    • 6.5.2 Post-endarterectomy headache
    • 6.5.3 Headache attributed to carotid or vertebral angioplasty or stenting
  • 6.6 Headache attributed to cranial venous disorder
    • 6.6.1 Headache attributed to cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT)
    • 6.6.2 Headache attributed to cranial venous sinus stenting
  • 6.7 Headache attributed to other acute intracranial arterial disorder
    • 6.7.1 Headache attributed to an intracranial endarterial procedure
    • 6.7.2 Angiography headache
    • 6.7.3 Headache attributed to reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS)
      • 6.7.3.1 Acute headache attributed to reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS)
      • 6.7.3.2 Acute headache probably attributed to reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS)
      • 6.7.3.3 Persistent headache attributed to past reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS)
    • 6.7.4 Headache attributed to intracranial artery dissection
  • 6.8 Headache attributed to genetic vasculopathy
    • 6.8.1 Headache attributed to Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)
    • 6.8.2 Headache attributed to Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
    • 6.8.3 Headache attributed to Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA)
    • 6.8.4 Migraine-like aura attributed to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)
    • 6.8.5. Headache attributed to syndrome of retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy and systemic manifestations (RVCLSM)
    • 6.8.6 Headache attributed to other chronic intracranial vasculopathy
  • 6.9 Headache attributed to pituitary apoplexy

 

7. سردردهای درون جمجمه ای مستقل از عروق  Headache attributed to non-vascular intracranial disorder

  • 7.1 Headache attributed to increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure
    • 7.1.1 Headache attributed to idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH)
    • 7.1.2 Headache attributed to intracranial hypertension secondary to metabolic, toxic or hormonal cause
    • 7.1.3 Headache attributed to intracranial hypertension secondary to chromosomal disorder
    • 7.1.4 Headache attributed to intracranial hypertension secondary to hydrocephalus
  • 7.2 Headache attributed to low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure
    • 7.2.1 Post-dural puncture headache
    • 7.2.2 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula headache
    • 7.2.3 Headache attributed to spontaneous intracranial hypotension
  • 7.3 Headache attributed to non-infectious inflammatory intracranial disease
    • 7.3.1 Headache attributed to neurosarcoidosis
    • 7.3.2 Headache attributed to aseptic (non-infectious) meningitis
    • 7.3.3 Headache attributed to other non-infectious inflammatory intracranial disease
    • 7.3.4 Headache attributed to lymphocytic hypophysitis
    • 7.3.5 Syndrome of transient Headache and Neurological Deficits with cerebrospinal fluid Lymphocytosis (HaNDL)
  • 7.4 Headache attributed to intracranial neoplasia
    • 7.4.1 Headache attributed to intracranial neoplasm
      • 7.4.1.1 Headache attributed to colloid cyst of the third ventricle
    • 7.4.2 Headache attributed to carcinomatous meningitis
    • 7.4.3 Headache attributed to hypothalamic or pituitary hyper- or hyposecretion
  • 7.5 Headache attributed to intrathecal injection
  • 7.6 Headache attributed to epileptic seizure
    • 7.6.1 Ictal epileptic headache
    • 7.6.2 Post-ictal headache
  • 7.7 Headache attributed to Chiari malformation type I (CM1)
  • 7.8 Headache attributed to other non-vascular intracranial disorder

 

8. سردردهای مرتبط با مواد ورودی و یا خروجی  Headache attributed to a substance or its withdrawal

  • 8.1 Headache attributed to use of or exposure to a substance
    • 8.1.1 Nitric oxide (NO) donor-induced headache
      • 8.1.1.1 Immediate NO donor-induced headache
      • 8.1.1.2 Delayed NO donor-induced headache
    • 8.1.2 Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor-induced headache
    • 8.1.3 Carbon monoxide (CO)-induced headache
    • 8.1.4 Alcohol-induced headache
      • 8.1.4.1 Immediate alcohol-induced headache
      • 8.1.4.2 Delayed alcohol-induced headache
    • 8.1.5 Cocaine-induced headache
    • 8.1.6 Histamine-induced headache
      • 8.1.6.1 Immediate histamine-induced headache
      • 8.1.6.2 Delayed histamine-induced headache
    • 8.1.7 Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-induced headache
      • 8.1.7.1 Immediate CGRP-induced headache
      • 8.1.7.2 Delayed histamine-induced headache
    • 8.1.8 Headache attributed to exogenous acute pressor agent
    • 8.1.9 Headache attributed to occasional use of non-headache medication
    • 8.1.10 Headache attributed to long-term use of non-headache medication
    • 8.1.11 Headache attributed to use of or exposure to other substance
  • 8.2 Medication-overuse headache (MOH)
    • 8.2.1 Ergotamine-overuse headache
    • 8.2.2 Triptan-overuse headache
    • 8.2.3 Non-opioid analgesic-overuse headache
      • 8.2.3.1 Paracetamol (acetaminophen)-overuse headache
      • 8.2.3.2 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-overuse headache
        • 8.2.3.2.1 Acetylsalicylic acid-overuse headache
      • 8.2.3.3 Other non-opioid analgesic-overuse headache
    • 8.2.4 Opioid-overuse headache
    • 8.2.5 Combination-analgesic-overuse1 headache
    • 8.2.6 Medication-overuse headache attributed to multiple drug classes not individually overused
    • 8.2.7 Medication-overuse headache attributed to unspecified or unverified overuse of multiple drug classes
    • 8.2.8 Medication-overuse headache attributed to other medication
  • 8.3 Headache attributed to substance withdrawal
    • 8.3.1 Caffeine-withdrawal headache
    • 8.3.2 Opioid-withdrawal headache
    • 8.3.3 Estrogen-withdrawal headache
    • 8.3.4 Headache attributed to withdrawal from chronic use of other substance

 

9. سردردهای مرتبط با عفونت  Headache attributed to infection

  • 9.1 Headache attributed to intracranial infection
    • 9.1.1 Headache attributed to bacterial meningitis or meningoencephalitis
      • 9.1.1.1 Acute headache attributed to bacterial meningitis or meningoencephalitis
      • 9.1.1.2 Chronic headache attributed to bacterial meningitis or meningoencephalitis
      • 9.1.1.3 Persistent headache attributed to past bacterial meningitis or meningoencephalitis
    • 9.1.2 Headache attributed to viral meningitis or encephalitis
      • 9.1.2.1 Headache attributed to viral meningitis
      • 9.1.2.2 Headache attributed to viral encephalitis
    • 9.1.3 Headache attributed to intracranial fungal or other parasitic infection
      • 9.1.3.1 Acute headache attributed to intracranial fungal or other parasitic infection
      • 9.1.3.2 Chronic headache attributed to intracranial fungal or other parasitic infection
    • 9.1.4 Headache attributed to localized brain infection
  • 9.2 Headache attributed to systemic infection
    • 9.2.1 Headache attributed to systemic bacterial infection
      • 9.2.1.1 Acute headache attributed to systemic bacterial infection
      • 9.2.1.2 Chronic headache attributed to systemic bacterial infection
    • 9.2.2 Headache attributed to systemic viral infection
      • 9.2.2.1 Acute headache attributed to systemic viral infection
      • 9.2.2.2 Chronic headache attributed to systemic viral infection
    • 9.2.3 Headache attributed to other systemic infection
      • 9.2.3.1 Acute headache attributed to other systemic infection
      • 9.2.3.2 Chronic headache attributed to other systemic infection

 

 

10. سردردهای ناشی از برهم خوردن هموساتز Headache attributed to disorder of homoeostasis

  • 10.1 Headache attributed to hypoxia and/or hypercapnia
    • 10.1.1 High-altitude headache
    • 10.1.2 Headache attributed to aeroplane travel
    • 10.1.3 Diving headache
    • 10.1.4 Sleep apnoea headache
  • 10.2 Dialysis headache
  • 10.3 Headache attributed to arterial hypertension
    • 10.3.1 Headache attributed to phaeochromocytoma
    • 10.3.2 Headache attributed to hypertensive crisis without hypertensive encephalopathy
    • 10.3.3 Headache attributed to hypertensive encephalopathy
    • 10.3.4 Headache attributed to pre-eclampsia or eclampsia
    • 10.3.5 Headache attributed to autonomic dysreflexia
  • 10.4 Headache attributed to hypothyroidism
  • 10.5 Headache attributed to fasting
  • 10.6 Cardiac cephalalgia
  • 10.7 Headache attributed to other disorder of homoeostasis

 

11. سردرد یا درد صورت ناشی از اختلال در جمجمه ، گردن ، چشم ، گوش ، بینی ، سینوس ها ، دندان ها ، دهان یا سایر ساختارهای صورت یا گردن Headache or facial pain attributed to disorder of the cranium, neck, eyes, ears, nose, sinuses, teeth, mouth or other facial or cervical structure

  • 11.1 Headache attributed to disorder of cranial bone
  • 11.2 Headache attributed to disorder of the neck
    • 11.2.1 Cervicogenic headache
    • 11.2.2 Headache attributed to retropharyngeal tendonitis
    • 11.2.3 Headache attributed to craniocervical dystonia
  • 11.3 Headache attributed to disorder of the eyes
    • 11.3.1 Headache attributed to acute angle-closure glaucoma
    • 11.3.2 Headache attributed to refractive error
    • 11.3.3 Headache attributed to ocular inflammatory disorder
    • 11.3.4 Trochlear headache
  • 11.4 Headache attributed to disorder of the ears
  • 11.5 Headache attributed to disorder of the nose or paranasal sinuses
    • 11.5.1 Headache attributed to acute rhinosinusitis
    • 11.5.2 Headache attributed to chronic or recurring rhinosinusitis
  • 11.6 Headache attributed to disorder of the teeth
  • 11.7 Headache attributed to temporomandibular disorder (TMD)
  • 11.8 Headache or facial pain attributed to inflammation of the stylohyoid ligament
  • 11.9 Headache or facial pain attributed to other disorder of cranium, neck, eyes, ears, nose, sinuses, teeth, mouth or other facial or cervical structure

 

12. سردرد ناشی از اختلالات روانی Headache attributed to psychiatric disorder

  • 12.1 Headache attributed to somatization disorder
  • 12.2 Headache attributed to psychotic disorder

 

13. نوروپاتی و دردهای صورت و سایر سردردها ( Neuropathies & Facial Pains and other headaches )

  • 13.1 Pain attributed to a lesion or disease of the trigeminal nerve
    • 13.1.1 Trigeminal neuralgia
      • 13.1.1.1 Classical trigeminal neuralgia
        • 13.1.1.1.1 Classical trigeminal neuralgia, purely paroxysmal
        • 13.1.1.1.2 Classical trigeminal neuralgia with concomitant continuous pain
      • 13.1.1.2 Secondary trigeminal neuralgia
        • 13.1.1.2.1 Trigeminal neuralgia attributed to multiple sclerosis
        • 13.1.1.2.2 Trigeminal neuralgia attributed to space-occupying lesion
        • 13.1.1.2.3 Trigeminal neuralgia attributed to other cause
      • 13.1.1.3 Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia
        • 13.1.1.3.1 Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia, purely paroxysmal
        • 13.1.1.3.2 Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia with concomitant continuous pain
    • 13.1.2 Painful trigeminal neuropathy
      • 13.1.2.1 Painful trigeminal neuropathy attributed to herpes zoster
      • 13.1.2.2 Trigeminal post-herpetic neuralgia
      • 13.1.2.3 Painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy
      • 13.1.2.4 Painful trigeminal neuropathy attributed to other disorder
      • 13.1.2.5 Idiopathic painful trigeminal neuropathy
  • 13.2 Pain attributed to a lesion or disease of the glossopharyngeal nerve
    • 13.2.1 Glossopharyngeal neuralgia
      • 13.2.1.1 Classical glossopharyngeal neuralgia
      • 13.2.1.2 Secondary glossopharyngeal neuralgia
      • 13.2.1.3 Idiopathic glossopharyngeal neuralgia
    • 13.2.2 Painful glossopharyngeal neuropathy
      • 13.2.2.1 Painful glossopharyngeal neuropathy attributed to a known cause
      • 13.2.2.2 Idiopathic painful glossopharyngeal neuropathy
  • 13.3 Pain attributed to a lesion or disease of nervus intermedius
    • 13.3.1 Nervus intermedius neuralgia
      • 13.3.1.1 Classical nervus intermedius neuralgia
      • 13.3.1.2 Secondary nervus intermedius neuralgia
      • 13.3.1.3 Idiopathic nervus intermedius neuralgia
    • 13.3.2 Painful nervus intermedius neuropathy
      • 13.3.2.1 Painful nervus intermedius neuropathy attributed to herpes zoster
      • 13.3.2.2 Post-herpetic neuralgia of nervus intermedius
      • 13.3.2.3 Painful nervus intermedius neuropathy attributed to other disorder
      • 13.3.2.4 Idiopathic painful nervus intermedius neuropathy
  • 13.4 Occipital neuralgia
  • 13.5 Neck-tongue syndrome
  • 13.6 Painful optic neuritis
  • 13.7 Headache attributed to ischaemic ocular motor nerve palsy
  • 13.8 Tolosa-Hunt syndrome
  • 13.9 Paratrigeminal oculosympathetic (Raeder’s) syndrome
  • 13.10 Recurrent painful ophthalmoplegic neuropathy
  • 13.11 Burning mouth syndrome (BMS)
  • 13.12 Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP)
  • 13.13 Central neuropathic pain
    • 13.13.1 Central neuropathic pain attributed to multiple sclerosis (MS)
    • 13.13.2 Central post-stroke pain (CPSP)

 

14. سایر انواع سردردها Other headache disorders

  • 14.1 Headache not elsewhere classified
  • 14.2 Headache unspecified

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